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Bandura, A. Stevenson Ed. The sixty-second yearbook of the National Society for Education pp. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Google Scholar. Barry, H. A cross-cultural survey of some sex differences in socialization. Journal of Abnormal Psychology , 55 , — CrossRef Google Scholar.

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Best, D. Sex, gender and culture. Berry, M. Kagitcibasi Eds. Bloch, M. Roopnarine, J. Hooper Eds. Braten, S. Childhood , 3 , — Carter, D. Social Cognition , 2 , — Chagnon, N. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. Cochran, M. Antrobus, S. Hamner Eds. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Prosocial behaviors in context: A study of the Gikuyu children of Ngecha, Kenya. Edwards, C. Another style of competence: The caregiving child. Melson Eds. Behavioral sex differences in children of diverse cultures: The case of nurturance to infants.

Fairbanks Eds. New York: Oxford University Press. Cross-Cultural Research , 34 , — Play patterns and gender. Encyclopedia of Women and Gender , 2 , — Women and dependency. Politics and Society , 4 , — Ngecha: A Kenyan community in a time of rapid social change. Eisenberg, N. The caring child. Cole Eds. Prosocial development.

Accessed September 23, Skip to main content. Parenting skills The child-parent relationship has a major influence on most aspects of child development. Back to recent texts The role of parents in early childhood learning. PDF version. Problem Despite the central role for responsive parenting in different research frameworks, much of what we know about this parenting style comes from descriptive studies. Can interventions targeting responsive parenting work for different types of high risk parents?

Do increases in the various aspects of responsiveness explain the positive changes in different aspects of cognitive and social development? Is parental responsiveness equally effective, or does its effectiveness vary for children with varying characteristics e. Maternal responsiveness and cognitive development in children.

Maternal responsiveness: Characteristics and consequences. Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the Strange Situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum; Impact of parental discipline methods on the child's internalization of values: A reconceptualization of current points of view.

Developmental Psychology ;30 1 Rogoff B. Apprenticeship in Thinking. Stroufe LA. Infant-caregiver attachment and patterns of adaptation in preschool: The roots of maladaptation and competence. In: Perlmutter M, ed. Minnesota Symposia in Child Psychology. Responsive parenting: Establishing early foundations for social, communication, and independent problem solving.

Developmental Psychology ;42 4 Socialization in the context of the family: Parent-child interactions. Handbook of child psychology. New York, NY: Wiley; Socialization, personality, and social development ; vol. Baumrind D.

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Rearing competent children. In: Damon W, ed. These values in turn may be expected to exert considerable influence on urban marriage and family.

Men prize their manliness and guard themselves against showing any sign of feminine weakness; a man must be strong, sexually potent, vigilant, quick and brave in response to threat or danger. In such a cultural setting, sex— role stereotypes take on special importance.

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However, sex—role stereotypes in Turkish culture differ in some important and surprising respects from those found in Western societies. However, only weak evidence for the instrumental vs.

Thus, the Turkish child is socialized into a view of sex typing which is rather different from that to which the Western child is exposed. Individualism-Collectivism Not only does the honor tradition underwrite male dominance, it also contributes to the closely-knit relationships of the traditional family: honor belongs to individuals, not as individuals but as members of families.

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Thus each person is dependent on the behavior of all the rest of the family for his or her status as an honorable member of the community. This mutual interdependence within the traditional Turkish family suggests that Turkish culture should be classified as "collectivistic" as defined by, e. Collectivistic cultures, as compared to individualistic cultures, are marked by subordination of the interests of the individual to the interests of the group usually the family.

Group loyalty is strong, and concern for intragroup harmony is paramount. Individual behavior tends to be controlled more by group surveillance than by private conscience, and the individual conceptualizes the self more in terms of relationships than of personal characteristics. Once again, the traditional rural culture must be contrasted with the modern urban culture. Practices differ from one part of the country to another, but the most prevalent customs involve a bride price paid to the bride's family, or alternatively the provision to the young couple of the necessities of an independent household by the groom's family.

The tradition of marriage between children of brothers, found in some parts of the country, clearly has its roots in the desire to keep property within the family. However, families remain highly influential in most marriage decisions. Family Hierarchies and Boundaries Relationships in the family are marked not only by the closeness discussed above, but also by a clear hierarchical organization. She found that family hierarchy over generations, expressed in the strength of control and nurturance on the part of the parents, was pronounced regardless of the educational or clinical status of the family, maternal employment or family size.

Status or power relations between spouses have consequences for other aspects of family life, notably on fertility. Other studies have produced congruent results.

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Many fathers are affectionate and playful with their infants and small children, but as the children grow, themes of authority and respect begin to dominate the relationship.