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However, tutors do not check drafts and papers for authenticity, so a student should not assume that his or her paper is acceptable if a tutor did not notice plagiarism. Students in courses in which TurnItIn is used are required to submit their work, including exams, lab reports, quizzes, etc. The program compares the submitted work to all published works, all Internet and Web-based material, and all other work submitted through the program in any course, at any participating school, in the current and all previous years. It then provides an originality report to the faculty member of the course, citing any duplication in the database.

The search engine used by TurnItIn is quite sophisticated and is able to identify duplication even if the word order of the submitted work differs from a source. Duplication will not necessarily constitute proof of an academic integrity violation, but will be considered as evidence in a judicial proceeding. Faculty members who choose to adopt TurnItIn will inform students of this use on their course syllabus or in other announcements at the beginning of the semester. The TurnItIn program allows students to create their own password for submissions and protects the intellectual property of students.

Nevertheless, a student who has concerns that a particular work contains patentable material may request that he or she be allowed to submit that material directly to the faculty member instead of through the program. Please note that the Dean of Student Affairs Office uses TurnItIn as an investigative tool when an accusation or suspicion of an academic integrity violation is reported, regardless of whether the course in which the violation is alleged has adopted the program.

This applies to graduate students as well as undergraduate students. These accommodations may not fundamentally alter course requirements, the outcome of a course or of a Tufts degree program. To excuse, ignore, or downplay the seriousness of cheating and other unethical behavior is not a reasonable form of accommodation for a disability because the inherent unfairness of cheating violates the essential function of a Tufts education. For these reasons, Tufts University will not excuse a violation of academic integrity nor reduce the disciplinary consequences of an academic integrity violation for any student based on a disability.

If a student has a documented disability that may impact his or her ability to take an exam or complete other course requirements, that individual may request accommodations through the office of Student Accessibility Services before attempting to take the course, fulfill its assignments, or take its exams. The office of Student Accessibility Services will then decide which accommodations are reasonable and will make arrangements for those accommodations with individual instructors.

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Students should not expect instructors to make academic accommodations for them without guidance from the office of Student Accessibility Services. The academic integrity policies as described here for traditional college classroom learning also apply to an online learning environment. However, some online courses may have additional policies to safe-guard the integrity of online exams and to authenticate the identity of the test-taker.

These policies apply to students and faculty and are of particular interest to graduate students working in labs, on grant-funded projects, or co-authoring articles with faculty members. Graduate students who observe or witness research misconduct or who are the victims of misconduct e. All research involving the use of human subjects requires prior approval from the IRB. This is excellent training in RCR!

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These online case studies focus on graduate studies in the sciences and social sciences but cover issues of importance to graduate students in the arts and humanities, too. Topics include working with faculty mentors, crediting co-authors, responsible peer review, research misconduct, research conflicts of interest, collaborative science, and data acquisition and management.

Advice columns in The Chronicle of Higher Education. The advice columns in The Chronicle of Higher Education are excellent resources for navigating the ethical, political, and social culture of academia. Tufts has a subscription to the Chronicle, so students can access all online content while logged into the Tufts network.

In order to write informed academic papers, students and scholars frequently rely on the expertise of other thinkers and researchers. As long as the original author is properly acknowledged and the source of the outside material properly documented, there is no problem. Plagiarism takes a variety of forms. Students with careless research methods who rely overly on online sources frequently find themselves committing plagiarism when they have copy-and-pasted phrases from a variety of websites into their Word document and cannot remember which words are their own and which belong to someone else.

It is important to note that plagiarism is not always committed intentionally. You may be accused of and punished for plagiarism even if you did not intend to plagiarize or if the plagiarism stems from ignorance of the rules or careless research methods. It is your responsibility to learn the rules of citing and documenting sources and to conduct your research carefully. The United States legal system rigorously defends the copyright and intellectual property of authors, artists, scholars, inventors, and corporations.

In a University setting, students who plagiarize face disciplinary action, notations on transcripts, and possibly Suspension. Because the penalties for plagiarism can be so severe, it is very important for you to learn how to conduct research with care and how to cite and document sources correctly. When you rely on outside sources in an academic paper, you must always:. Hugo Bedau, Austin B.

It would require us to rape rapists, torture torturers, and inflict other horrible and degrading punishments on offenders. It would require us to betray traitors and kill multiple murderers again and again, punishments impossible to inflict. Since we cannot reasonably aim to punish all crimes according to this principle, it is arbitrary to invoke it as a requirement of justice in the punishment of murderers.

If, however, the principle of just deserts is understood to require that the severity of punishments must be proportional to the gravity of the crime, and that murder being the gravest crime deserves the severest punishment, then the principle is no doubt sound.

But it does not compel support for the death penalty. What it does require is that crimes other than murder be punished with terms of imprisonment or other deprivations less severe than those used in the punishment of murder. Criminals no doubt deserve to be punished, and punished with severity appropriate to their culpability and the harm they have caused to the innocent.


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But severity of punishment has its limits—imposed both by justice and our common human dignity. July When we research a topic, we sometimes find a source that says what we want to say, frequently in words better than we feel we could write. In these cases, it may be tempting to copy sections of the source, but you would in fact be plagiarizing it piece by piece.

Proponents of capital punishment often argue that punishment must fit the crime, and therefore, death is the only appropriate punishment for a murderer. If this idea is understood to require that punishments are unjust unless they are like the crime itself, then the principle is unacceptable. If, however, the principle of just deserts is understood to require that the severity of punishments must be proportional to the seriousness of the crime, and that murder being the most extreme crime deserves the severest punishment, then the principle is no doubt sound.

But it does not compel us to support capital punishment. Even though a few words have been changed from the original, this kind of copying constitutes word-for-word plagiarism. To avoid plagiarism, the writer could have kept the original as it was, acknowledged Hugo Bedau as the source, and put the entire passage in quotation marks. Hugo Bedau, professor of philosophy at Tufts University and an expert on ethics, illustrates the lack of logic behind the idea that the death penalty is the only fitting punishment for a murderer:.

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If this principle is understood to require that punishments are unjust unless they are like the crime itself, then the principle is unacceptable. Since we cannot reasonably aim to punish all crimes according to this principle, it is arbitrary to invoke it as a requirement of justice in the punishment of murderers Because it is a long quotation—over four lines long—the writer has indented it.

Note that because Professor Bedau is acknowledged as the author of the quotation, the writer does not have to include his name in the parenthetical citation at the end of the quotation. Opposition to the death penalty does not mean one is soft on crime. Indeed, death penalty opponents believe that criminals deserve to be punished, and punished with severity appropriate to their guilt and the harm they have caused to the innocent. For example, if the logic of those who support capital punishment is followed fully, it would require us to rape rapists, torture torturers, bomb bombers, and inflict other terrible, degrading punishments on offenders.

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Obviously, these forms of punishment are ludicrous, but then so is the illogic of capital punishment Bedau, This sample constitutes plagiarism because the writer failed to identify with quotation marks and a citation in the appropriate place the words belonging to Professor Bedau. Obviously, these forms of punishment are ludicrous, but then so is the illogic of capital punishment. Note that in this correct version, the parenthetical citations appear immediately after the sentences borrowed from Bedau, and that everything inside the quotation marks is exactly as Bedau has written it.

It is important to remember that everything inside quotation marks must be the same as the original—even spelling errors! However, even a short phrase of one or two words must be cited properly to avoid stealing the unique phrasing of another writer. This is sometimes very difficult if you are writing in a language in which you are not yet fluent. Death penalty opponents have crafted many complex arguments to capital punishment.

Appealing to their own skewed notions of human dignity, they assert that murderers, terrorists, and other violent criminals should be punished with imprisonment or other deprivations less severe than death. Justice and human dignity, however, demand that the punishment fit the crime—if murderers are to be punished with severity appropriate to their culpability and the harm they have caused to the innocent victims and their families, the only punishment severe enough for the gravity of the crime is that of death. Note that certain common phrases do not need to be cited.

The appropriate use of paraphrase and summary is essential to good academic writing.


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However, many students do not paraphrase correctly and commit plagiarism by accident when they too closely follow the phrasing and sentence structure of the original source. Paraphrase P Some argue that death is what killers deserve, Original O It is often argued that death is what murderers deserve, P and that those who oppose capital punishment violate the essential principle O and that those who oppose the death penalty violate the fundamental principle P that criminals should be punished according to what they deserve— O that criminals should be punished according to their deserts— P in other words, the punishment must fit the crime.

O making the punishment fit the crime. P If we understand this principle to mean that punishments O If this principle is understood to require that punishments P are not just if they are not like the crime itself, then the principle is wrong.

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O are unjust unless they are like the crime itself, then the principle is unacceptable. P It would require us to rape rapists, torture torturers, bomb bombers, O It would require us to rape rapists, torture torturers, P and inflict other terrible, disgusting punishments on criminals. O and inflict other horrible and degrading punishments on offenders.

P It would even require us to kill serial killers again and again— O It would require us to betray traitors and kill multiple murderers again and again, P clearly this is impossible. O punishments impossible to inflict. As we can see, inappropriate paraphrasing copies the sentence structure and phrasing of the original too closely.

Then check your paraphrase against the original to make sure you have conveyed its points and subpoints correctly and have not unintentionally mimicked its phrasing too closely. The paraphrase below was written using this method. For if killing must be punished by killing, then all crimes must be punished with the equivalent punishment: rapists punished with rape, torturers punished with torture, et cetera, ad nauseum.